Dr. Amalia Tri Utami

Maulana Malik Ibrahim State Islamic University, Indonesia

Title: The Dangers of Morphine through the Septic Shock Mechanism that Increase the Severity of Covid 19 : Literature Review



Background: Allah has sent down the revelation contained in the Qur’an Surah Al Maidah verse 90 concerning the prohibition of consuming morphine, which reads.

“O you who have believed, indeed, intoxicants, gambling, [sacrificing on] stone alters [to other than Allah], and divining arrows are but defilement from the work of Satan, so avoid it that you may be successful.”

Morphine can induce septic shock where it has been reported that opiate addicts have been shown to have a high susceptibility to Covid 19 virus infection. The authors investigated how the use of morphine could alter the lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-induced inflammatory response in mice. Chronic morphine alone increases serum endotoxin levels. animals given morphine and LPS (250 microg/kg) developed hypothermia, decreased Mean Arterial Pressure(MAP), increased plasma thrombin anti-thrombin III (TAT) complex, and approximately 67% of animals showed progressive intramicrovascular coagulation. Morphine also increases LPS-induced Leukocyte-Endothelial Adhesion(LEA), suppressed leukocyte flux, and corticosterone production, and increases interleukin-1beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and serum interleukin-6 levels. The molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying LPS-induced inflammation are robust and accelerate the progression of septic shock seen with chronic morphine exposure in patients with Covid-19 virus infection.


Doctor Amalia is a pathology lecturer at UIN Maulana Malik Ibrahim now 30 years old and is waiting for postdoc school at the Faculty of Medicine at Kerman Univeristy after the pandemic ends. Currently exploring and developing the treasures or miracles of Islam in the fields of medicine, science and technology.

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