Title: Drug Residue and Drug Resistance
One of the major concern of modern system of medicine be it human medication or animal, misuse of medicines by self medication and not under the supervision of experts in the respective field. The consequence of this is so detrimental that is currently faced by mankind. WHO has declared that Antimicrobial Resistance is one of the top 10 global public health threats facing humanity. The main cause of such resistance are misuse and overuse of antimicrobials. This is largely seen in veterinary field as the drugs are readily available over the counter and the personnel engaged in animal treatment are most of the time not well qualified (non-vet quacks). The immediate result although may not be observed however it initiates a sort of chain reaction causing resistance and cross resistance to a number of antimicrobials.
In an experiment conducted by scientists at Harvard University, the development of antibiotic resistance to bacteria was observed as early as 11 days and unfortunately the development of a new antibiotic to fight such bacteria may take 11 years or more. The drug development is a tedious process and involves various phases ranging from target identification to post marketing phases. Two crucial criteria should be taken into consideration before using anti antimicrobials for the treatment of the patients; If the drug is underdosed, drug resistance develops, and if the drug is overdosed, drug residue in the tissue persists for a longer duration. The latter may directly causes toxic effect in the patients or if used in animal that may lead to tissue residue and when such animal product (milk/meat/Egg) is consumed the residue enters the human body. Inside the human body the drug residue may evoke drug allergy ranging from mild rashes to life threatening anaphylactic reactions or the same lead to drug resistance when the individual is treated with the same group of antimicrobials as traces are already exist in the body. Strict implementation of appropriate use of antimicrobials and close monitoring of the withdrawal period along with routine public awareness regarding antimicrobial resistance should be carried out to safeguard animal and human health in near future.
Dr. Dulal Chandra Roy is presently working as Prof and Head cum Principal Investigator at Dept. Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Veterinary Science, Assam Agricultural University. He was honored with Doctor of Literature from Aschroft University, London. He received doctoral degree in the year 1995 from Gujarat Agricultural University. His research prime objective involves drug residue and drug resistance and is working for the same field for more than 10 years. He has guided more than 15 masters and PhD students. He is currently holding one ORP project on MDR and EP, ICAR, New Delhi since 2009. To his credit, he has published 47 articles in various national and international peer reviewed journals.